Diatonic intervals are found within this type of scale.chromatic: using pitches outside of a particular diatonic scale, or using a succession of half steps.major tonality: pitches are related to a central pitch called the tonic.Major scales are used.minor tonality: pitches are related to a central pitch called the tonic.
The sonata form emerges from an expanded rounded binary form in the Classical period. concerto-sonata form: derived from sonata form, but with two expositions (1. orchestra and soloist) and a solo cadenza between the recapitulation and the coda.Variation sets are commonly used in the Classical period as the slow movement of a string quartet or symphony.fugue: a one-subject (also called monothematic) composition in which the subject is continually restated on different pitches and in various keys, processing the modulations, fragments or registers of the subject.Some Renaissance genres (mass, motet, madrigal) are typically through-composed.Generally called the Middle Ages, this long historical era can be broken into several distinct developmental periods and falls between Classical Antiquity and the Renaissance.
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contour: the shape of the melody as rising or fallingconjunct: stepwise melodic motion, moving mostly by step in intervals of a 2nddisjunct: melodic motion in intervals larger than a 2nd, often with a large number of wide skips range: the distance between the lowest and highest pitches, usually referred to as narrow (beat: pulsemeasures or bars: a metrical unit separated by lines in musical notationmeter: groups of beats in a recurring pattern with accentuation on strong beatsnon-metric, unmetrical: free rhythm, no discernable timesimple meters: beats subdivided into two parts (2/4, 3/4, 4/4)compound meters: beats subdivided into three parts (6/8, 9/8, 12/8)asymmetrical meters: meters with an uneven number of subdivisions (7/4, 5/8)mixed meters: shifting between metersmensurations: used in music from 1300-1600, the ratios of rhythmic durationschords: three or more pitches sounding simultaneouslytriads: three notes that can be arranged into superimposed thirdsextended chords: thirds added above the triad, usually as a 9th, 11th or 13th consonance: a harmonic combination that is stable, usually in thirdsdissonance: a harmonic combination that is unstable, often including seconds or seventhsparallel motion: two or more parts moving in the same direction and same intervals, as in parallel fifthscontrary motion: two or more parts moving in the opposite direction oblique motion: occurs when one voice remains on a single pitch while the other ascends or descendscanon: (meaning rule) one melody is strictly imitated by a second part after a delay in the entrance of the second part.In order for the parts to end simultaneously, the canon may break down at the end of the composition.The violin is developed, but is mostly used outdoors.Instruments are not usually specified for compositions.ensembles: called ? A whole consort is an ensemble of the same family (e.g., all recorders, SATB) and a broken consort is a mixed ensemble.composers: Du Fay, Dunstable, Binchois, Ockeghem, Josquin des Prez, Palestrina, Byrd, Morley, Dowland, Marenzio, Monteverdi, and hundreds or otherstextures: homophonic, polyphonic, and contrapuntal texturesrhythms: metrical rhythms, strong and weak beat pulsesmotives: short ideas become the basis for continuous pitch and register manipulation, often presented without regular pauses in the musicscales: major and minor scales developharmonic rhythm: changes often occur on every beat or every two beats basso continuo: bass line played by the harpsichord and cello or other solo bass instrument figured bass: develops c.The canonic parts may occur at the unison or some other interval.
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round: an exact canon, ending at different times, as in ? imitation: two or more parts that have the same or similar phrase beginning and with delays between entrances (as in a round or canon), but after the beginning of the phrase, the parts diverge into separate melodies diatonic: a seven-note scale with a regular pattern of 5 whole and 2 half steps.sectional variations: a theme and variation set, where usually each section is clearly marked.Generally in a theme and variations, the theme itself is identifiable.musical staff: ranging from one to four lines, c-clefs, no bar lines or metersaccidentals: B-flat onlysources: manuscripts are hand copied on parchmentgenres: numerous types of chants (songs in Latin for the church services)composers: mostly anonymoustextures: polyphonic harmony: perfect consonances (perfect fourths, fifths and octaves)harmonic motion: parallel, then in contrary and oblique motionmelodic motion: conjunct in each voice parttext settings: syllabic and melismatic, mostly in Latinscales: modalrhythm: repetitive rhythmic patterns in compound time called rhythmic modesnotation: modal; signs (neumes) show the groups of notes that form each rhythmic unitmusical staff: four to five lines, c-clefs, no bar lines or meters, no dynamics or expression marks, voice designations: tenor, duplum, triplum, quadruplumsources: manuscripts are hand copied on parchmentgenres: organum (chant combined with polyphony), motet (polyphonic settings with new and separate texts added to each voice chants composers: Leonin and Perotin (Notre Dame in Paris), Hildegard of Bingensecular: worldly music not written for religious servicestexts: vernacular languages - French, German, Spanish, Englishtexture: mostly monophonicmotion: conjunct melodiestext settings: syllabic and melismaticrhythm: mostly unmetered rhythms until 1250, metered for dancesscales: modal ranges: narrow, usually less than an octavetraditions: troubadours (South French), trouvres (North French), Minnesingers (German) instrumental dancesinstruments: organs, recorders, sackbuts (trombone), shawm (double reed), vielles (string)composers: Bernart of Ventadorn, Beatrice of Dia, Adam de la Halle, and hundreds of otherstextures: polyphonic texts: vernacular and Latin rhythm: complex rhythmic patterns, simple and compound metrical groups, often syncopatedmelodic motion: conjunct linesharmony: consonances: (P=perfect) P4, P5, P8, some thirdsranges: often an octave in each voicecantus firmus: a pre-existent melody (chant, for example) used in the lower voice (tenor)musical notation: mensural; early time signatures (mensuration signs), but still no bar lines 5-line staff with c and f clefs, flats and sharps used on individual notes, and flats at the beginning of a line apply throughout the line, but not as ? the name Picardy comes from north French region where many of these composers originated) ranges: expand to utilize the full SATB registersgenres: growth of numerous sacred and secular genresvocal: predominant in sacred and secular musicsacred music: sung a cappellasecular music: can be sung with instrumentsnotation: mensural; early time signatures (mensuration signs), but still no bar lines.5-line staff with c and f clefs, parts written on individual sections of the page, no dynamic markings voice designations: tenor, contratenor, cantus, later changing to cantus, altus, tenor, bassus. Manuscripts also continue to be hand copied.genres: single-movement compositions, except for the Mass cycle and dance pairsmass cycle: sacred choral, a capella composition with specific Ordinary sections of the Catholic service composed as a group, often with the same cantus firmus in the tenor part motet: sacred choral, a capella composition with words in Latin chorale: sacred hymn with words in German chanson: secular polyphonic composition with words in French madrigal: secular polyphonic composition with words in Italian Lied: secular polyphonic composition with words in German ayre: secular polyphonic composition with words in English canzona: instrumental composition in the style of a chanson dances: usually in pairs, like the slow pavan and the fast galliardmusical instruments: harpsichord (also called the virginal), clavichord, lute, viola da gamba family (also called viols), recorders, cornetto, shawm, sackbut.